J.F.: Well, the idea would be that they would not because they were not really a warrior culture. Particularly, when I went and interviewed them, all of the elders, the women, the kids, they couldn't remember a time when they had a killing. Four hundred years on either side and the fact they weren't. And so the idea is that these nomads would have the same genetic structure as kind of the pre-war people that we were. So they were exactly the opposite we thought. Well, when we tested them they had the same exact distribution as southern Italians and Sicilians of warrior genes. It was the same and so that kind of threw us off and I started to wonder what it was and then really had to start considering the effect not only of early upbringing, but of the environment, the physical environment, the harshness of it, and how they adjudicate burgeoning fights and violence and they have a way of doing it that seems to really lower the amount of violence. They let their kids, they let the people fight it out for awhile and then they bring the elders in and they make a decision. So, that was a curveball so, in fact, they are not really a warrior culture in either one, but they show the same distribution as other warrior cultures of genetics. So, there's something other than genetics.
R.K.: What's the percentage now? What is the warrior gene and how does it manifest and what are the percentage of people that have it?
J.F.: Well, Rob, here's the interesting thing about the warrior gene. The first one found was MAOA, monoamine oxidase, that regulates the breakdown of serotonin, but right now those genes that are associated with violence and aggression, there's about fifteen of them, so there's really about fifteen warrior genes. So, if you have it, if you have one of them, it really doesn't affect you that much. It can, but it depends on the early environment. If you have all of them, if you inherit all of those forms of genes that are aggression, aggressive, you are going to be an aggressive person and so those warrior genes have a different effect on the chemistry and connections and development of the brain. And the thing with the warrior, the first warrior gene, the classic one, MAOA, well that gene, the codes for the enzyme MAOA that breaks down serotonin, in one form breaks down serotonin very quickly and one very slowly. If you inherit the genes which are the slow ones, that means that all during development, uterine development, fetal development, the serotonin is not broken down. So, your whole brain, the brain the fetus is floating in a lot of serotonin and that ends up turning off areas of the brain that normally respond to serotonin when you're an adult to calm you down. That is those emotional, or limbic areas of the brain. So, it permanently changes them so that when you're older and somebody really ticks you off, you become angry, you will stay angry longer than the average person because the serotonin that is normally released doesn't have the effect it would in a normal person. So, that's one way, but there are many ways to this. Violence and the psychopathy on the genetic side because there's different brain structures and they're regulated by different genes and the one regulating the kind of empathy you have is something separate too and it's effected by about ten genes. So there's about fifty genes and there's probably billions of ways to be a psychopath, but it ends up being defined by your behaviors, right? But there are many ways to get there.
R.K.: You said there were about fifteen warrior genes and about fifty genes tied to psychopaths?