New Document Shows FBI Interrogation Advice Draws on CIA Torture ManualsBy Jeffrey Kaye (about the author) Permalink (Page 2 of 4 pages)
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The FBI manual also argues for the use of isolation to achieve rapport by leveraging the isolation or solitary confinement of a detainee. Kevin Gosztola highlighted this aspect of the FBI "primer" in an August 2 article at Firedoglake's The Dissenter blog.
What both Gosztola and the ACLU miss in their otherwise important commentary about the coercive isolation technique (even the CIA's KUBARK manual recognizes isolation is a coercive technique, i.e., torture) is how the FBI intends to leverage the effects of isolation to achieve effects under their "rapport" paradigm. This psychological aspect of the use of isolation has not been generally publicized.
"The need for affiliation is one of the advantages the Interrogator has if a subject has been isolated from fellow detainees, " the FBI "primer" states.
In this matter, the FBI is following in the footsteps of the CITF doctrine it followed in DoD interrogations under an October 2003 directive that stated, "The use of isolation facilities will not be employed as an interrogation tactic; however, on a case-by-case basis it can be used as an incentive." Perversely, the use of isolation under this directive was supposed to be "approved" by the detainee.
The KUBARK manual describes the anxieties, emotional discomfort and psychological regression that follow from enforced isolation, and how the interrogator exploits this situation (italics added for emphasis):
"As the interrogator becomes linked in the subject's mind with the reward of lessened anxiety, human contact, and meaningful activity, and thus with providing relief for growing discomfort, the questioner assumes a benevolent role".
"At the same time, the calculated provision of stimuli during interrogation tends to make the regressed subject view the interrogator as a father figure. The result, normally, is a strengthening of the subject's tendencies toward compliance."
The Appendix M Torture Virus Spreads to FBI Doctrine
Writing in an August 2 letter to FBI Director Robert Mueller, ACLU Director Laura Murphy and Legislative Counsel Devon Chaffee make the important connection between FBI policy on using isolation and current Department of Defense interrogation policy.
As official interrogation doctrine of the Obama administration, Army Field Manual FM 2-22.3 (AFM), Human Intelligence Collector Operations made use of isolation part of their "Separation" technique, as described in its Appendix M.
Murphy and Chaffee write:
"By recommending that FBI agents ask the U.S. military to isolate detainees in its custody, the FBI primer appears to be encouraging the application of Appendix M of the Army's interrogation manual--a controversial, restricted appendix that allows detainee isolation only in certain circumstances not involving prisoners of war. The FBI primer states that in a Department of Defense facility "a formal request from the FBI must be made to isolate the detainee' and that this request "must be approved by the first O-6 in the chain of command.' Appendix M of the military's interrogation manual (which requires O-7 level approval) permits the use of isolation--as well as the placement of goggles, blindfolds, and earmuffs on the detainee--to "foster a feeling of futility.' Experienced interrogators and human rights groups, however, have called for Appendix M to be revoked, questioning the technique's effectiveness and highlighting the risk that its use will lead to serious human rights abuses."
The abusive techniques of Appendix M, which also includes sleep deprivation and allowed environmental manipulations, along with the AFM's allowance for use of fear techniques and even use of drugs, were approved in a 2006 Office of Legal Counsel memorandum for the files (PDF) by torture memo author Steven Bradbury.
Although President Obama, with the advice of Attorney General Eric Holder, revoked the 2002, 2005 and a few other OLC Bush-era torture memos, the administration never revoked the memo on Appendix M.
Use of isolation was something the FBI adopted early on, and its use was in evidence even in the early days at Guantanamo, where FBI Special Agent Ali Soufan was in charge of the interrogation of Mohamed Al Qahtani. While Al Qahtani's interrogation was later the subject of an escalation of use of torture techniques by the military, which was itself a matter of some protest within DoD and FBI circles, while the FBI was in charge, Soufan had Al Qahtani placed in harsh isolation.
Soufan went so far as to remove Al Qahtani from the usual cellblock and built a special cell for him alone, meant to duplicate the hard isolation conditions Jose Padilla had been placed into in a Charleston, South Carolina Navy brig. When Soufan, NCIS Chief Psychologist Mark Gelles, and others protested use of other techniques of physical and psychological torture on Al Qahtani, their alternate proposal was to put the already near-psychotic and ailing prisoner in months more intense isolation.
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