Another significant area of operational neuroscience research for Morgan has been deception detection -- that is, figuring out when someone isn't being truthful during an interview, or an interrogation. According to his online CV, he has received Department of Defense funding totaling nearly $2 million for this work over the past several years. Research on this same topic reportedly also became an important focus of attention for several intelligence agencies -- including the CIA -- immediately after the 9/11 attacks. Befitting his expertise and stature in the field, Morgan has been involved in a variety of high-level initiatives designed to bring together university researchers and personnel from the defense and intelligence sectors.
For example, Morgan is among the listed attendees at a July 2003 invitation-only workshop on "The Science of Deception: Integration of Theory and Practice." The event was co-hosted by the American Psychological Association (APA) and the RAND Corporation, with generous funding from the CIA. The participants discussed various scenarios, including one focused on law enforcement interrogation and debriefing, and another on intelligence gathering. They also explored specific research questions, such as which pharmacological agents affect truth-telling, and whether it might be possible to overwhelm a person's senses so as to reduce his capacity to engage in deception during an interrogation. Psychologist Jeffrey Kaye has noted that, in a very unusual step, the APA has scrubbed most of the information about this workshop from its website.
In June 2004 Morgan was a participant at another invitation-only workshop -- co-sponsored by the Department of Justice, the FBI, and the APA -- titled "The Nature and Influence of Intuition in Law Enforcement: Integration of Theory and Practice." Among the topics examined were the extent to which police officers, intelligence analysts, interrogators, and others can effectively use "intuition" in their work -- for instance, in order to detect deception -- and how such capabilities might be applied to counterterrorism efforts. The proceedings from this event identify Morgan as "Senior Research Scientist, Behavioral Science Staff , Central Intelligence Agency" -- a professional affiliation that does not appear on his online CV.
Morgan is credited with a similar affiliation in the 2006 report "Educing Information," published by the National Defense Intelligence College. As a member of the Government Experts Committee, Morgan is listed as working for the "Intelligence Technology Innovation Center," an administrative unit that falls under the CIA. The foreword to the report describes the volume as "a primer on the "science and art' of both interrogation and intelligence gathering." Included is a chapter on deception detection by Morgan's close research colleague, psychologist Gary Hazlett. One of Hazlett's recommendations in the report is that "the United States adopt an aggressive, focused plan to support research and development of enhanced capabilities to validate information and the veracity of sources." He also notes that the most troubling limitation of deception research thus far is the lack of "various Asian, Middle Eastern, Central and South American, or African populations" as research participants.
Responding to Morgan's reported plans for a new center at Yale, local advocacy group Junta for Progressive Action issued a statement of concern last month. It noted that, "As a city that has worked to establish itself as a welcoming and inclusive city for immigrants, the idea of targeting immigrants specifically for the purpose of identifying the distinction of how they lie is offensive, disrespectful and out of line with the values of New Haven." In a recent newspaper report, Morgan called rumors that the proposed center at Yale would teach new interrogation techniques mere "hype and fantasy," explaining that he instead "suggested to the Army that perhaps some training in people skills -- how to talk to and listen to people might be helpful and create better relations." Even assuming that this reassuring account is true, it's certainly not unreasonable to question whether deception detection research and training might have been part of the proposed center's future operational neuroscience agenda.
Classified and Unclassified Research on Campus
There are broader questions beyond those focused specifically on the uncertain details and background surrounding the not-to-be Center of Excellence for Operational Neuroscience at Yale. The unusual sequence of events that unfolded in New Haven last month should ideally serve as a springboard for open discussion of the opportunities and pitfalls associated with research partnerships between universities and national security agencies. To its credit, Yale University has a clear policy that explicitly prohibits its faculty from conducting secret or classified research:
"The University does not conduct or permit its faculty to conduct secret or classified research. This policy arises from concern about the impact of such restrictions on two of the University's essential purposes: to impart knowledge and to enlarge humanity's store of knowledge. Both are clearly inhibited when open publication, free discussion, or access to research are limited."
But not all academic institutions have such stringent rules, which are necessary to promote full transparency, informed critiques by other scholars and researchers, and constructive engagement beyond the walls of higher education institutions. At the same time, it should be noted that, even at Yale, voluntary faculty members -- Morgan's official status at the university -- do not need to disclose research activities that are not being conducted on behalf of Yale.
Some of the most challenging ethical issues remain even when classified research is not conducted on university campuses. As psychologist Stephen Soldz has highlighted, in cases of unclassified research funded by national security agencies, the academic researchers are not necessarily informed about the totality of the projects to which they are contributing. He offers the example of findings from seemingly uncontroversial deception detection studies, which may ultimately become the basis for the capture, indefinite detention, and torturous interrogation of prisoners in undisclosed locations -- well beyond the university researchers' awareness. Soldz also warns that researchers may never know if their campus work has become "part of a vast secret effort to unlock the mystery of mind control and develop techniques for coercive interrogations, as happened to hundreds of behavioral scientists and others in the decades of the CIA's MKULTRA and other Cold War behavioral science initiatives." These risks are further exacerbated for psychologists, psychiatrists, and other health professionals for whom a "do no harm" ethic intrinsically poses conflicts with research projects aimed at identifying and destroying those who are considered adversaries.
There are applications of operational neuroscience -- such as improved prosthetic limbs for injured veterans and more effective treatments for victims of brain injury -- that are compelling in their apparent value and their promotion of human welfare. But other applications raise profound concerns, especially where the defining goals and priorities of a university and its medical researchers and scientists diverge from those of national security and intelligence operatives. Community health sciences professor Michael Siegel -- a graduate of Yale's School of Medicine -- emphasized this point when he was interviewed on Democracy Now! last month. Siegel noted: "The practice of medicine was designed to improve people's health, and the school of medicine should not be taking part in either training or research that is primarily designed to enhance military objectives."
In this context it's worthwhile to recall exactly who Morgan envisioned as the trainees for his proposed "people skills" interview project at the medical school: U.S. Special Forces, the highly skilled soldiers often assigned the military's most difficult and dangerous missions. These forces -- over 60,000 strong including military personnel and civilians -- are now covertly deployed around the globe. Journalists Dana Priest and William Arkin have described them as "America's secret army." Their counterterrorism operations include intelligence-gathering missions and lethal raids -- not only in Afghanistan but also in countries where the United States is not at war. They've been authorized to keep "kill lists" of individuals who can be assassinated rather than captured, and some have conducted brutal interrogations at secret detention sites. The Army refers to its Special Forces as the "most specialized experts in unconventional warfare."
At this point, signs clearly indicate that a U.S. SOCOM Center of Excellence for Operational Neuroscience will not be coming to Yale. But it would be a mistake to assume that this research -- and the very considerable national security sector funding it attracts -- will not find another home. This is why it's important that the current controversy not be dismissed without fuller engagement and discussion among all stakeholders of pressing practical and ethical considerations -- before a similar project appears on another campus or resurfaces in a reconfigured form in New Haven. The prospect of all defense-related neuroscience research being conducted clandestinely by government or corporate entities -- away from the public and expert oversight that universities can offer -- is far from reassuring, so difficult issues like this must be tackled head-on.
One valuable next step would be an open forum at Yale. Dr. Morgan could have the opportunity to describe in greater detail the nature of his deception detection work and related projects -- including his ongoing research in New Haven about which Yale recently claimed it was unaware. Other distinguished scientists, ethicists, and human rights experts could provide their commentaries. And community members, students, faculty, and administrators could offer their own perspectives and pose questions. Such an event would not likely produce consensus, but the sharing of information, the free expression of differing viewpoints, and informed debate are among the most vital functions of a university. Pending further developments, there are very good reasons to be concerned -- and confused -- about the recent twists and turns surrounding the proposed center at Yale. Many of the most critical questions still await answers.
Note. A version of this essay first appeared in Counterpunch.